Singidunum (SINGIDVNVM), Belgrade

Roman city and legionary fort

Singidunum is one of the early established cities on the Danube in Moesia Superior.  It is located on the strategic location near the mouth of river Sava into Danube. On the cliff above these rivers legionary fort of Legio IIII Flavia Felix was probably formed at the end of the 1st century AD (after 86 AD), but definitely exists after Trajan’s Second Dacian War. Its vexilationes took part in many campaigns predominantly in the Eastern part of the Empire. From the Notitia Dignitatum we know that this legion stayed here until the end of antiquity.

Roman remains lay under present day Belgrade city center. Legionary fort is located under modern Kalemegdan Park and under later Turkish/Austrian fort (Upper Kalemegdan). Roman architecture is visible only on several points under the mediaeval and later ramparts and in the basement hall of the Belgrade city Library (The Roman Hall). Recent discovery of legionary valetudinarium raised a lot of attention but there was no possibility to present them at that moment. Fort was one of the larger ones on this section of limes measuring 570 x 330 m

Canabae legionis were located on the bank of river Sava under the legionary fort. Nothing of them is visible at the moment (Lower Kalemegdan).

Civilian settlement of Singidunum lies under present day Belgrade city center. Nothing of this civilian settlement is presented at the moment. Singidunum had the status of municipium after 169, but there are indications that it could be and much earlier.  It was raised to the rank of colonia between Septimius Severus and Diocletian. Exact dating remains uncertain. It is recorded that emperor Iovianus (363-364 AD) was born here in 330/332.

There were many temples within city and canabae of which those dedicated to Jupiter and Nemesa are securely identified as well as one Mithreum.

Singidunum was completely destroyed during Hun invasion in 441/443 AD. It was rebuilt during Justinian’s restoration of Danube limes but it fall in Avar hands in 584.

Because of the roman Singidunum being within urban area all needed infrastructure is easily reachable and only further development or adaptations are necessary. Areas for excavations are narrow with limited possibilities for presentation.

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